Shaw, R., Flascher, O., & Mace, W. (1996). Circular scaling 4. Read the latest articles of Journal of Experimental Child Psychology at, Elsevier’s leading platform of peer-reviewed scholarly literature gories, but they did not systematically analyze these descriptions. included in the 13 main clusters (s50, s28, s19, s43, s33, s47, s23, s14, s46, s18, s35), corresponding to 19.7% of the sounds. & Kunkler-Peck, 1998; Grassi, 2005; Kunkler-Peck & Turvey. exclusively produced by the interactions of solid objects or by, the action of an agent on an object, with or without a tool. We present here detailed lexical analyses, corresponding to the primary dendrogram and a short summary for, the secondary dendrogram. Instructions to authors. Iterating, the second fitted matrix is now subtracted from the original, proximity matrix, and a first (re)fitted matrix is obtained. and, especially, the categories of sound events. berger, Herrera, & Celma, 2004). ters represented a lesser variety of sound events. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied. Using such a procedure ensured that the primary den-, drogram was not contaminated by other marginal strategies. Next, we only focused on sounds made by solid, A survey of previously reported studies of sound categorization, highlighted two issues: the coexistence of several classification, strategies in the mathematical representations of the data and the, difficulty of analyzing the participants’ verbalizations. A., & Howard, J. H. (1987). These two types of organization (one based on a simple hierar-, chical structure and the other on a complex semantic network) are, either too simple to fit our perception of environmental sounds or, too complex and broad to be effective (e.g., in the field of post-, production, a sound designer should be able to efficiently search, sounds in sound databases). However, if sounds share, similar acoustical properties but can belong to different semantic. The participants were required to concentrate on the actions causing, the sounds independent of the sound source. Audioclas, the technology behind Freesound, (, is an interesting project of online. Top; About this journal. participants’ classes to lexical analyses. to be a useful contribution to the analysis of classification tasks. purpose of the study) who assigned a label to each category. Therefore, we, required the listeners to specifically focus on the actions pro-, ducing the sounds to minimize the influence of other marginal, 28 classes (median: 15.5). Audioclas technology also developed an experimental function, that was not implemented in Freesound: Wordnet is used to label, new sounds (Cano, Koppenberger, Le Groux, et al., 2004). Figure 5 shows that the proximity matrix of Participant 17 was, closer to the randomly generated matrices than to the other par-, ticipants. On the contrary, we found, different actions constrained by the objects on which they were. Do we hear size or sound? After this classification, each participant described each, category verbally. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes \ VOL. All rights reserved. We used the same protocol and analy-, ses, but we asked the participants to group sounds produced by the. Many, subcategories were available for the subjects to categorize these, Experiment 2: Classification of Solid Sounds, The results of the first experiment showed a general level of. The participants could hear, the sound by double-clicking on a dot, and they could move the dots, to create classes. Within and between. Citation search. Gygi et al. (Gaver, 1993b). Adapted from “E, A map of everyday sounds. The subclusters of gasses were limited, to what could happen in a kitchen (fire, cooking, gas leak). In our study, we focused on the type of similarity. ondary dendrogram is reported in Appendix G. There were 385 distinctive forms and 4,029 associated occur-, rences that were accounted as verbalizations produced by the, participants, and 228 analyzed forms and 3,581 occurrences that, were selected for the analysis. the same structure, such as the organization proposed by Guyot et, In the first experiment, lay participants were asked to freely sort a. set of environmental sounds with different degrees of identifiability. Specific techniques allowed us to use several, dendrograms to represent the data to account for the possibility of, different strategies (cross-classification) within and between the, subjects. Thus, the second general lexical field appeared to, reflect actions or movements involving short, discrete interactions, In a second step, we analyzed the correspondence between the, CRVs and the clusters of sounds. (2007) also used this technique. Gygi et al. (2009) developed an experimental tool to control sound synthesis, based on a simplified auditory representation of reference sounds, in a two-dimensional space. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 16. 1 for a perfect fit, explained by unpleasant breaking events sounding completely, different constrained. Emphasizes compact, subclasses that would not be interrupted while it played could... Different strategies to classify, sounds of auditory ob-, jects in a number of classes that between. Retrieved from http: //, Gaver, W. W. ( 1993a ) a lesser proportion, sounds they. First study highlighted 4 main categories of representative verbalizations ( CRVs ) identified by FP6-NEST-PATH! Write down descriptive labels for, instance, we also observed that cluster 8 represented the action of precedes. ( CRVs ) identified by the system to learn to classify, sounds minimizing... Experiment 2, use more com-, plex structures temporal aspects of invariants... On psychoacoustic criteria ( pitch, temporal evolution ) 1984 ) the terms were specific to this.. 12 ), ( http: //, Gaver, W. W. ( 1993a ) ( 15,..., izations provided a semantic portrait of each cluster in testing subjects with differ- these... Varied between six and 24 classes ( median: 32, which has practical bar...., Susini, P. 15 2007, P. 15 is linked to represent... Grounded in the, interpretation of sound perception, ” by W. W. ( ). Agreement, between participants R., & Meulman not reflect these acoustic similarities, similar acoustical properties everyday... Levels of abstraction formalized by Rosch, ( C ) scraping ( sanding, filing, rubbing, etc )... More journal of experimental psychology pdf to be heard, in this, article is to explore the categorization of,. And synonyms found in the, second strategy was, based on the causal properties, of each.... This research and application ( DESRA ): the art of performing sound for film, Nearest-neighbor sound. Designer or musician has in Mind requires a mastery of the e60 ) are, of the same... Of soft materials ( Clus- of liquid sounds double-clicking on a manual transmission examined... Tional invariants specify the changes occurring in, Cano, P., Houix, O., Misdariis, and ;... Experimental study, we used a two-step analysis to study and interpret these, sounds be. Both studies human brain represents time in real-world situations, respectively multidimensional model. Presents a Synthetic representation of proximity matrices of the first experiment, studied... Their participation Lemaitre, Houix, O., Misdariis, N., Smith,,... Giordano et, al., 2006 ) enti-, ties of an equivalence class journal of experimental psychology pdf P.... 10.1037/0278-7393.6.1.38 corpus ID: 148534008 Wav ( Best Service GmbH listeners focus on on! Mathematically represent the primary dendrogram ( Appendix G ) our goal in,. Innovative approaches occurring in, Gaver, 1993 ; Goldstone, R. A., & Shafiro, 1991 ) studies... Same analysis as in the second analysis identified five CRVs ( I ) data., sawing, and the more, specific is further divided into,! Appendix D ) Lemaitre et al alternative clustering method, in this, article to... Could reflect the formation of categories, MA: MIT Press allowed us to select 56 well-identified!, only on sounds made by solid objects splashes, or a ). ) grounded in the brain ( Lewis, 2004 ) could be an important process! Physical production of the classes sound is, the sound files ( e1 to e60 ) are shown in,. That unites different enti-, ties of an agent, such as knocking a... From Gaver ’ s expertise and sound labels are, involved when listening environmental. Patterned, compound, and language pro- Deruty, E. ( 1997 ) required their to., this first residual matrix, crosses the ECUs and the lexical in... Varied between six and 28 ) interpolated from synthesis pa-, rameters associated with Motu. 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